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Card Payment Flow

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The card payment flow is composed of 5 steps:

Authorization

An authorization is the process of checking the availability and holding an amount on the cardholder's account. Throughout the lifetime of this authorization, which lasts 7 days, this amount will be held and then deducted from cardholder's credit limit. An authorized transaction has the execution status = 'to process'.

Capture

The capture is the process of collecting the money that was held by an authorization. Following this process, the money will be debited from the debtor's account and credited to the merchant's account within 2 days.
A captured transaction has the execution status = 'processing' between D-2 and D.

Settlement

The settlement is the moment when funds have been debited from the original account and credited on the destination account, in general, 2 days after the capture.  
A settled transaction has the execution status = 'processed'.

IMPORTANT! The execution status 'not processed' means that the payment is rejected by the banking network or the Checkout is not completed by the client. You'll receive one of these card errors when the payment is rejected during the Checkout process before the money is debited. If you didn't get any error you can consider (theoretically) the payment as processed, despite the fact that you still don't have the money on your account.

Refund

The refund is the process of returning a card transaction that has already settled. It is initiated by the merchant.

Chargeback

A chargeback is the reversal of a credit card payment that comes directly from the debtor's bank. It is a dispute between a merchant and a debtor around a card transaction. The process is initiated by the cardholder, but it's the bank's duty to determine whether such a request is reasonable or not. Read more about chargebacks here.

A charged-back transaction has the execution status = 'rejected'.

 

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NB: The chargeback request delays depends on the card provider (MasterCard, Visa, etc.) and the justification.

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