The card payment flow is composed of 5 steps:
An authorization is the process of checking the availability and holding an amount on the card holder's account. During all the life of this authorization, this amount will be held and then deducted from card holder's credit limit. A basic authorization last 7 days, but can be extended using the authorization extension feature.
An authorized transaction has the execution status='to process'.
The Capture is the process of collecting the money that was held by an authorization. Following this process, the money will be debited from the debtor's account and credited to the merchant's account within 2 days.
A captured transaction has the execution status='processing' between D-2 and D.
The Settlement is the moment when funds have been debited from the original account and credited on the destination account, in general, two days after the capture.
A settled transaction has the execution status='processed'.
IMPORTANT! When the execution status is = 'not processed' means that the payment is rejected by the banking network or the checkout is not completed by the client. You'll get one of these card errors when the payment is rejected during the checkout process before the money is debited. If you didn't get any error you can consider (theoretically) the payment as processed, but with only difference that you still don't have the money on your account.
The refund is the process of returning a card transaction that has already settled. It can be initiated by the merchant or by the payer but has to be agreed and processed by the merchant.
A refunded transaction has the execution status='rejected'.
A Charge-back is the reversal of a credit card payment that comes directly from the bank. It is a dispute between a merchant and a debtor around a card transaction. The process is initiated by the card holder but it's the bank’s duty to determine whether such a request was reasonable or not. Read more about charge-back.
A charged-back transaction has the execution status='rejected'.